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Applied Superconductivity, Metallurgy, and Physics of Titanium Alloys Fundamentals (volume1)

by E.W. Collings

  • ISBN: 9780306416903
  • ISBN10: 0306416905

Applied Superconductivity, Metallurgy, and Physics of Titanium Alloys Fundamentals (volume1)

by E.W. Collings

  • List Price: $368.00
  • Binding: Hardcover
  • Publisher: Kluwer Academic Pub
  • Publish date: 02/01/1986
  • ISBN: 9780306416903
  • ISBN10: 0306416905
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Description: I: Metallurgy.- 1. Equilibrium and Nonequilibrium Phases.- 1.1 Equilibrium Phases.- 1.1.1 Electron/Atom Ratio Systematics.- 1.1.2 Electronic Structure and Phase Stability.- 1.2 ?-Titanium Alloys.- 1.3 ?-Titanium Alloys.- 1.4 Binary Titanium-Transition-Metal Alloys.- 1.4.1 Further Classification Schemes for Titanium-Alloy Phases.- 1.4.2 The Ti-Cr System.- 1.4.3 The Ti-Nb System.- 1.5 Multicomponent Titanium-Transition-Metal Alloys.- 1.5.1 Titanium-Base Multicomponent Alloys in General.- 1.5.2 The Ti-Zr-Nb System.- 1.6 Nonequilibrium Phases.- 1.6.1 The Martensitic and Athermal ?-Phases in Quenched Titanium-Transition-Metal Alloys.- 1.6.2 The Quenching Process.- 1.6.3 Stability Limit of the ?-Phase in Titanium-Transition- Metal Alloys.- 1.7 Formation and Structures of the Martensitic Phases.- 1.7.1 Morphology of Martensites.- 1.7.2 Structure of the Martensites.- 1.7.3 Crystallographic, Thermodynamic, and Acoustic Aspects of the Martensitic Transformation.- 1.8 Occurrence and Structure of the Quenched w-Phase.- 1.9 Summary--The Occurrence of the Martensitic and co-Phases in Quenched Titanium-Niobium Alloys.- 2. Aging and Deformation.- 2.1 The Aging of Quenched ?-Titanium Alloys.- 2.2 The Athermal and Isothermal ?-Phases.- 2.2.1 Athermal ?-Phase.- 2.2.2 Isothermal ?-Phase.- 2.3 ?-Phase Separation.- 2.3.1 Occurrence of the Reaction.- 2.3.2 Ti-Cr.- 2.3.3 Ti-Mo.- 2.3.4 Ti-Nb.- 2.3.5 Thermodynamics of the Phase-Separation Reaction.- 2.4 ?-Phase Precipitation from ?-Titanium Alloys.- 2.4.1 Direct Precipitation.- 2.4.2 Precipitation from the ?'' + ?-Phase.- 2.4.3 Precipitation from the ? + ?-Phase.- 2.5 Down-Quenching and Up-Quenching--?-Reversion.- 2.6 Effects of Third Element Additions on Precipitation in Quenched-and-Aged Titanium-Transition-Metal Alloys.- 2.6.1 The Ternary ? + ?Phase Regime.- 2.6.2 The Ternary ?'' + ?-Phase Regime.- 2.7 ?-Phase Immiscibility.- 2.8 Effects of Cold Deformation on the Microstructures of Quenched ?-Titanium Alloys.- 2.8.1 Low- and High-Level Deformation Microstructures.- 2.8.2 Further Studies of Cold Rolling.- 2.8.3 Swaging.- 2.8.4 Flattening.- 2.8.5 Wire Drawing.- 2.8.6 Summary.- 2.9 Influence of Stress, Strain, and Interstitial-Element Additions on the Transformation Kinetics of Quenched ?-Titanium Alloys.- 2.10 Influence of Stress on the Transformation.- 2.11 Influence of Heavy Plastic Deformation.- 2.11.1 Influence of Heavy Deformation on the Kinetics of Precipitation.- 2.11.2 Influence of Aging on the Fibrous Cell Structure.- 2.12 The Influence of Interstitial-Element Additions.- 2.13 Summary--The Occurrence of Isothermal ?- and Equilibrium ?-Phases in Deformed and/or Aged Titanium-Niobium Alloys.- 2.13.1 The Isothermal ?-Phase.- 2.13.2 The Equilibrium ?-Phase.- 3. Mechanical Properties.- 1. HARDNESS.- 3.1 The Hardness Test.- 3.2 Hardness of Quenched Titanium-Transition-Metal Alloys.- 3.3 Hardness of Aged Titanium-Niobium Alloys.- 3.4 Influence of Third-Element Additions on the Hardnesses of Unalloyed Titanium and Titanium-Niobium Alloys.- 3.5 Hardness of Ternary and Quaternary Transition-Metal Alloys.- 3.6 Theoretical Relationships Between Hardness and Strength.- 3.7 Application of the Marsh formula to the Determination of the Yield Strength of a Wire.- 3.8 Normal and Anomalous Tensile Properties of Superconductors.- 2. ANOMALOUS MECHANICAL PROPERTIES.- 3.9 Anomalous Tensile and Related Properties.- 3.10 Acoustic Emission from Copper and Titanium-Niobium.- 3.11 Mechanical Fatigue of Composite Conductors.- 3.12 Thermomechanical Heating.- 3. NORMAL MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF TITANIUM-NIOBIUM ALLOYS AND COMPOSITE CONDUCTORS.- 3.13 Young''s Modulus of Titanium-Niobium Superconductors.- 3.14 Hardness and Modulus of Titanium-Niobium Superconductors.- 3.15 Hardness, Modulus, and Yield Strength in Titanium-Niobium Superconductors.- 3.16 Tensile Strengths of Titanium-Alloy Superconductors.- 3.17 Tensile Properties of Titanium-Niobium Technical Superconducting Alloys.- 3.18 Strengths of Titanium-Niobium-Base Multicomponent Alloys.- 3.19 Modulus and Strength of Composite Superconductors.- 3.20 Determination of the Tensile Properties of Composites.- 3.21 Strengthening Principles in Alloys and Composite Conductors.- 3.22 Strengthening of Alloys.- 3.23 Strengthening of Composite Conductors.- 3.24 Workability of Titanium-Alloy Superconductors.- II: Physics.- 4. Dynamic Elastic Modulus.- 4.1 Determination of Dynamic Moduli.- 4.1.1 Definitions and Interrelationships.- 4.1.2 Terminology.- 4.1.3 Long-Wavelength Measurement Techniques.- 4.2 Ultrasonic (MHz) Methods in Elastic Modulus Measurement.- 4.2.1 Cubic Monocrystals.- 4.2.2 The Isotropic Solid.- 4.2.3 The Anisotropic Solid.- 4.3 Calculation of Polycrystalline Elastic Moduli from the Mono- crystalline Compliance Moduli and Stiffness Moduli (i.e., the Elastic Constants).- 4.3.1 The VRH Approximation.- 4.3.2 The VRHG Approximation--The Debye Temperature.- 4.4 The Elastic Moduli of Titanium-Transition-Metal Alloys.- 4.5 Systematic Variation of Elastic Moduli with Composition and Microstructure in Titanium-Transition-Metal Alloys.- 4.5.1 The ?-Isomorphous Alloys Ti-V, Ti-Nb, and Ti-Mo.- 4.5.2 The ?-Eutectoid Alloys: Ti-Cr, Ti-Mn, Ti-Fe, Ti-Co, and Ti-Ni.- 4.6 The Dynamic Modulus of Titanium-Niobium.- 4.7 The Dynamic Moduli of Composite Superconductors.- 5. Electrical Resistivity.- 5.1 Electrical Resistivity of Titanium-Alloy Superconductors.- 5.2 Resistometrically Monitored Transformation and Aging.- 5.3 The Resistivity of Alloys--Composition Dependence.- 5.3.1 Simple Models of Alloy Resistivity.- 5.3.2 Residual Resistivities of Binary Transition-Metal Alloys.- 5.3.3 Relative Scattering Strengths of Simple-Metal and Transition-Metal Solutes in Ti.- 5.4 The Resistivity of Alloys--Temperature Dependence.- 5.4.1 Dilute Alloys at Low Temperatures.- 5.4.2 Ti-Alloy Resistivity at Moderate-to-High Temperatures.- 5.4.3 Ti-Alloy Resistivity at Moderate to Low Temperatures-- Gross Features.- 5.5 Anomalous Resistivity Concentration Dependence and Temperature Dependence in Titanium-Base Alloys.- 5.5.1 Anomalous Concentration Dependence.- 5.5.2 Negative Temperature Dependence.- 5.6 Three Case Studies of Negative dp/dT.- 5.6.1 Negative dp/dT in Ti-V and Ti-Mo.- 5.6.2 Negative dp/dT in Ti-Cr.- 5.7 Mechanisms of Anomalous Resistivity Temperature Dependence.- 5.7.1 Impurity-Scattering Mechanisms.- 5.7.2 Ideal- (i.e., Phonon-) Scattering Mechanisms.- 5.7.3 Anomalous dp/dT in Strong-Scattering Disordered Binary Alloys.- 5.8 Magnetoresistivity in Normal Metals.- 6. Thermal Conductivity.- 6.1 Thermal Conductivity in Insulators and Normal Metals.- 6.2 Insulators.- 6.2.1 Intrinsic Lattice Conductivity.- 6.2.2 Influence of Impurities.- 6.2.3 Influence of Grain Boundaries and Lattice Disorder.- 6.3 Conductors.- 6.3.1 Relative Magnitudes of Insulator and Conductor Conductivity.- 6.3.2 The Electronic Component.- 6.3.3 The Lattice Component--Thermal Conductivity under Phonon-Electron and Phonon-Impurity Scattering.- 6.4 Thermal Conductivity of Alloys.- 6.4.1 Influence of Solute Concentration.- 6.4.2 Separation of the Electronic and Lattice Components.- 6.5 Thermal Conductivity Data.- 6.6 Thermal Conductivity in a Magnetic Field.- 6.7 Superconductors.- 6.7.1 The Electronic Thermal Conducitivity of Superconductors, Kes.- 6.7.2 The Phonon Thermal Conductivity of Superconductors, Kgs.- 6.8 The Mixed State.- 6.8.1 General Conclusion.- 6.9 Transition-Metal-Alloy Superconductors.- 6.9.1 Normal-State Electronic Resistivity.- 6.9.2 Normal-State Lattice Resistivity.- 6.9.3 Superconducting State.- 6.10 Thermal Transport in Titanium-Niobium Alloys.- 6.10.1 Thermal Conductivity of Ti-Nb.- 6.10.2 Thermal Diffusivity of Ti-Nb.- 6.11 Thermal Resistance of Superconductor/Normal Interfaces.- 6.11.1 Occurrence of the Thermal-Boundary Effect--Kapitza Resistance.- 6.11.2 Kapitza Resistance of the Cu/Ti-Nb Interface.- 6.11.3 Temperature Drop at the Cu/Ti-Nb Interface in a Composite Conductor--A Simple Model Calculation.- 7. Magnetic Susceptibility.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.1.1 Magnetic Susceptibilities of Solids.- 7.1.2 The Role of Magnetic Susceptibility in Ti-Alloy Physics.- 7.2 Components of the Total Magnetic Susceptibility of Transition Metals and Their Alloys.- 7.3 Pauli Paramagnetic Susceptibility.- 7.3.1 Many-Body Effects in Pauli Paramagnetism.- 7.3.2 Many-Body Effects in Electronic Specific Heat.- 7.3.3 Calorimetrically Determined xP.- 7.4 Landau Diamagnetism.- 7.5 Ion-Core Diamagnetism.- 7.6 Orbital Paramegnetism.- 7.7 Magnetic Susceptibilities of Some Pure Transition Elements.- 7.8 Susceptibility Composition Dependences in Binary Transition- Metal Alloys.- 7.8.1 Total Magnetic Susceptibility.- 7.8.2 Pauli Paramagnetism.- 7.8.3 Orbital Paramagnetism.- 7.9 Susceptibility Temperature Dependences of Pure Transition Elements.- 7.10 Curie-Weiss Paramagnetism in Titanium-Transition-Metal Alloys.- 7.10.1 Dilute Alloys.- 7.10.2 Concentrated Ti-Mn Alloys.- 7.11 Susceptibility Temperature Dependence in Concentrated Titanium-Base Alloys--Case Studies of Ti-Al, Ti-V, and Ti-Mo.- 7.11.1 ?-Phase Alloys.- 7.11.2 ?-Phase Alloys.- 7.12 Concentration, Microstructure, and Temperature Dependences of Magnetic Susceptibility--A Case Study of Titanium- Vanadium.- 7.12.1 Concentration and Microstructure Dependence.- 7.12.2 Anomalous Temperature Dependence.- 7.13 Magnetic Susceptibility as a Function of Microstructure in Titanium-Base Alloys.- 7.13.1 Quenched Ti-TM Alloys.- 7.13.2 Magnetic Susceptibility of ?-Phase.- 7.14 Magnetic Studies of Precipitation and Aging in Titanium- Transition-Metal Alloys.- 7.14.1 The Aging Process in the ? + ?-Field.- 7.14.2 Properties of a "Saturation-Aged" ? + ?-Phase Ti-TM Alloy.- 8. Low-Temperature Specific Heat.- 8.1 Low-Temperature Specific Heat of Solids.- 8.1.1 Specific Heat of Insulators.- 8.1.2 Low-Temperature Specific Heat of Metals.- 8.1.3 Interrelationships Between y and ?D.- 8.2 Composition and Microstructure Dependence of Low- Temperature Specific Heat in Titanium Transi
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