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  • ISBN: 9780137765270
  • ISBN10: 0137765274

Argumentation: Understanding and Shaping Arguments

by Herrick, James A.

  • List Price: $67.00
  • Binding: Paperback
  • Edition: 1
  • Publisher: Allyn & Bacon
  • Publish date: 11/01/1994
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Description: All chapters conclude with "Chapter Review" and "Exercises." Preface. UNIT ONE: THE COMPONENTS AND CONTEXT OF ARGUMENTS. 1. An Introduction to Arguments. The Elements of Arguments. Identifying an Argument's Reasons and Conclusions. Two Types of Reasons: Evidence and Connectives. The Place of Values in Argument. Agreements in Argumentation. Propositions of Fact, Value, and Policy. What Arguments Do: Justify, Persuade, Discover. 2. Tools for Analyzing Arguments. When Arguments Are and Are Not Likely. Deductive and Inductive Reasoning. Three Tools for Analyzing Arguments. Complementary Reasons. Toulmin's Model. Missing Elements in Arguments. 3. Ethical Argumentation. Argumentation, Persuasion, and Ethics. Argument Ethics and Social Pluralism. Some Approaches to Argument Ethics. Virtues in Argumentation. UNIT TWO: THE STANDARDS OF SOUND ARGUMENTS. 4. Reasonable Arguments, Reasonable People. Reasonable Arguments. Reasonable People. Responding to Arguments. 5. Validity and the Structure of Arguments. Conditional Validity. Categorical Validity: Stage One. Categorical Validity: Stage Two. Validity in Enumeration Arguments. Disjunctives and Dilemmas. Validity in Inductive Arguments. 6. An Introduction to Evidence: Satisfying the Criterion of Support. General Tests of Evidence. Sources of Evidence. 7. Evidence: Statistics and Testimony. Statistics as Evidence. Testimony as Evidence. 8. Linguistic Consistency: Definitions in Argument. Definition Reports: Defining for Clarity and Emphasis. Argumentative Definitions. Evaluating Definitions. Ambiguity and Equivocation. Other Considerations of Language in Argument. UNIT THREE: ARGUMENT TYPES AND AUDIENCE ADAPTATION. 9. Analogies and Examples. Analogies. Arguing from an Example. 10. Reasoning About Causes. Arguments Advancing Hypotheses. The Structure of Arguments Advancing Hypotheses. Arguments Generalizing About Cause. 11. Loci Communes: Some Common Arguments. Pragmatic Arguments and Arguments from Principle. Arguments from Quantity and Quality. Loci of Essential Nature. 12. Fallacies and Related Concerns. Fallacies. Appeals. 13. Case Construction and Audience Adaptation. Policy Case Construction. Audience Adaptation. Glossary. Index.
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