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Concurrent Engineering Fundamentals Integrated Product and Process Organization

by Biren Prasad

  • ISBN: 9780131474635
  • ISBN10: 0131474634

Concurrent Engineering Fundamentals Integrated Product and Process Organization

by Biren Prasad

  • List Price: $95.00
  • Binding: Hardcover
  • Edition: 96
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publish date: 01/01/1996
  • ISBN: 9780131474635
  • ISBN10: 0131474634
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Description: Preface As the name implies, the book describes the fundamentals of Concurrent Engineering and explains the basic principles on which this very subject is founded. The most of the materials in the book are either original ideas or their extension to CE. Most is never reported elsewhere and is based on the author''s successes while practicing CE on the job, and decades of his research and learning working with electronic, automotive, aerospace and railroad industries including Ford, General Motors, Electronic Data Systems, Association of American Railroads, NASA and numerous other places abroad. Concurrent Engineering approach to product design and development has two major themes. The first theme is establishing a concurrent product and process organization. This is referred to herein as "process taxonomy." The second theme is applying this process taxonomy (or methodology) to design and develop the total product system. This is referred to as integrated product development (IPD). Each theme is divided into several essential parts forming major chapters of this book. The first volume called integrated product and process organization has nine chapters. The second volume named integrated product development has ten chapters. The materials in these two volumes are brought together to balance the interests of both the customers and the companies. The contents of Volume One are: Manufacturing Competitiveness: Life-cycle Management, Process Reengineering, Concurrent Engineering Definitions, Cooperative Work Teams, System Engineering, Information Modeling, The Whole System, and Product Realization Taxonomy. The contents of Volume Two are: Total Value Management, CE Metrics and Measures, Concurrent Function Deployment, Integrated Product Development, Frameworks and Architectures, Decision Support System, Intelligent Information System, Capturing Life-Cycle Values, Life-Cycle Mechanization, and CE Implementation Guidelines. In Concurrent Engineering (CE) system, each modification of the product represents a transformation relationship between specifications (inputs, requirements and constraints), outputs, and the concept the modification represents. At the beginning of the transformation, the specifications are generally in abstract forms. As more and more of the specifications are satisfied, the product begins to take shape (begins to evolve into a physical form). To illustrate how a full CE system will work, and to show the inner-working of its elements, author defines this CE system as a set of two synchronized wheels. The representation is analogous to a set of synchronized wheels of a bicycle. Figure 1 shows this CE wheel set. Concurrent Engineering Wheels The first CE wheel represents the integrated product and process organization. The second CE wheel accomplishes the integrated product development. The two wheels together harmonize the interests of the customers and the fostering CE organization (frequently referred to as an enterprise). The contents of the first wheel are described in Volume One and the contents of second wheel are described in Volume Two of the CE fundamental books. Three concentric rings represent the three essential elements of a wheel. The middle ring represents the CE work-groups, which drive the customer and the enterprise like how a human drives a bike. The work-groups are divided into four quadrants representing the four so called CE teams. These teams are: the personnel team, the technology team, the logical team, and the virtual team. They are discussed in Chapter 5. The outer ring for each wheel is divided into eight parts. Each part represents a chapter of this book. The parts for the first wheel are discussed in Volume One. This volume explains how the CE design process (called herein CE process taxonomy) provides a stable, repeatable process through which increased accuracy is achieved. The book starts with an introductory chapter on manufacturing competitiveness reviewing the history and emerging trends. The remaining chapters of the book (Volume One) describe CE design process, explain how concurrent design process can create a competitive advantage, define CE process taxonomy, and address a number of major issues related to product and process organization. The parts of the second wheel are discussed in Volume Two. A separate chapter in the book is dedicated to discussing each part of the two CE wheels. First CE Wheel: Integrated Product and Process Organization The innermost ring of the first CE wheel is a hub. The layout of the hub is same for both wheels. The hub represents four supporting "M" elements: models, methods, metrics and measures. Models refer to information modeling. Methods refer to product realization taxonomy. They are discussed in Chapters 7 and 9 of Volume One, respectively. CE Metrics and Measures are discussed in Chapter 2 of Volume Two. The complexity of the product design and development (PDD) process differs depending upon the (i) Types of information and sources (ii) Complexity of tasks (iii) Degree of their incompleteness or ambiguity Other dimensions encountered during this PDD process that cannot be easily accommodated using traditional process (such as serial engineering) are: (iv) Timing of decision making (v) Order of decision making (vi) Communication mechanism The elements of the first CE wheel define a set of systems and processes that have the ability to handle all of the above six dimensions. In the following some salient points of the chapters are briefly highlighted: Manufacturing Competitiveness: The price of the product is dictated by world economy and not by one''s own economy or a company''s market edge alone. Those companies that can quickly change to world changing market place can position themselves to complete globally. This chapter outlines what is required to become a market leader and compete globally. Successful companies have been the ones who have gained a better focus on eliminating waste, normally sneaked into their products, by understanding what drives product and process costs and, how value can be added. They have focused on a product and process delivery-system-how to transform process innovations into technical success and how to leverage the implementation know-how into big commercial success. Many have chosen to emphasize high-quality flexible or agile production in product delivery rather than high-volume (mass) production. Life-cycle Management: Today, most companies are under extreme pressure to develop products within time periods that are rapidly shrinking. As the market changes so do the requirements. This has chilling effect in managing the complexity of such continuously varying product specifications and handling the changes within this shrinking time period. The ongoing success of an organization lies in its ability to: continue to evolve; quickly react to changing requirements; reinvent itself on a regular basis; and keep up with ever changing technology and innovation. Many companies are stepping up the pace of new product introduction, and are constantly learning new ways of engineering products more correctly the first time, and more often thereafter. This chapter outlines life-cycle management techniques, such as management change, and process improvement to remain globally competitive. Process Reengineering: The global marketplace of the 1990s has shown no sympathy to tradition. The reality is that if the products manufactured do not meet the market needs, demand declines and profits dwindle. Many companies are finding that true increase in productivity and efficiency begins with such factors as clean and efficient process, good communication infrastructure, teamwork, a constancy of shared vision and purpose. The challenge is simply not to crank up the speed of the machines so that its outputs (per unit of time) are increased or doubled, but to change the basic machinery or process that produces the outputs. To accomplish the latter goals, this chapter describes several techniques to achieve competitive superiority such as benchmarking, CPI, organizational restructuring, renovation, process re-engineering, etc. CE Definitions: The changing market conditions and international competitiveness are making the time-to-market a fast shrinking target. Over the same period, diversity and complexity of the products have increased multi-folds. Concurrency is the major force of Concurrent Engineering. Paralleling describes a "time overlap" of one or more work-groups, activities, tasks, etc. This chapter describes seven CE principles to aim at: Parallel Work-group, Parallel Product Decomposition; Concurrent Resource Scheduling; Concurrent Processing; Minimize Interfaces; Transparent Communication; and Quick Processing. This chapter also describes the seven forces that influence the domain of CE (called here as agents or 7Ts) namely: talents, tasks, teams, techniques, technology, time and tools. Cooperative Work-groups: It has been the challenge for the design and manufacturing engineers to work together as teams to improve quality while reducing costs, weight, and lead-time. A single person, or a team of persons, is not enough to provide all the links between: human knowledge and skills; logical organization; technology; and a set of 7Cs coordination features. A number of supporting teams is required, some either virtual or at least virtually collocated. For the waltz of CE synthesis to succeed, CE teams need clear choreography. This chapter describes for the first time the four collaborative teams that are essential for managing a CE organization. Examples of collaborative features include capabilities of electronic meeting such as message-posting and interactions through voice, text, graphics and pictures. System Engineering: Most groups diligently work to optimize their sub-systems, but due to lack of incentives they tend to work independently of each other. This results in a product, which i
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