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Human Cancer Markers

by Stewart Sell

Human Cancer Markers cover
  • ISBN: 9780896030299
  • ISBN10: 0896030296

Human Cancer Markers

by Stewart Sell

  • List Price: $159.99
  • Binding: Hardcover
  • Publisher: Humana Pr Inc
  • Publish date: 04/01/1982
  • ISBN: 9780896030299
  • ISBN10: 0896030296
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Description: 1 Monoclonal Antibodies to Human Tumor Antigens.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Monoclonal Antibodies to Preselected Antigens--Technology.- 2.1. Hybridomas.- 2.2. Epstein-Barr Virus Transformation of Human Lymphocytes.- 3. Monoclonal Antibodies to Human Tumors.- 3.1. Leukemia Antigens.- 3.2. Melanoma Antigens.- 3.3. Colorectal Carcinoma Antigens.- 3.4. Alphafetoprotein.- 3.5. Neuroblastoma Antigens.- 4. Potential Diagnostic and Therapeutic Uses of Monoclonal Antibodies.- 5. Potential Problems with Monoclonal Antibody Usage.- 6. Final Comments.- References.- 2 Cell Surface Antigens on Normal and Neoplastic Human Lymphoid Cells.- 1. Three Major Classes of Immunocompetent Lymphocytes.- 1.1. Subsets of Lymphocytes Defined by Rosetting with Sheep Red Blood Cells.- 1.2. T Cell Subsets Defined by Membrane Receptors for Immunoglobulin.- 1.3. Cell Surface Markers Defined by Heteroantisera.- 2. Cell Surface Markers Defined by Monoclonal Antibodies.- 2.1. Antigens That Potentially May be Detected by Monoclonal Antibodies.- 2.2. Monoclonal Antibodies Reactive with PBL-T Cells.- 2.3. Antigens Detected on Thymocytes by Monoclonal Antibodies.- 2.4. Cell Surface Markers on B Cells and Monocytes.- 2.5. Monoclonal Antibodies Reactive with Leukemias and Lymphomas.- 2.6. Precautions in Interpreting the Reactivity of Monoclonal Antibodies.- 3. Clinical Applications.- 3.1. Lymph Node Architecture: Normal and Malignant.- 3.2. Clinical Applications of Monoclonal Antibody Technology.- 4. Summary.- References.- 3 An Immunochemical Approach to the Isolation of Human Melanoma-Associated Antigens.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Methods.- 2.1. Intrinsic Labeling.- 2.2. SDS Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE).- 2.3. Indirect Immunoprecipitation.- 3. Identification of MAA in Spent Culture Medium.- 4. Characterization of Melanoma-Associated Antigens.- 4.1. Molecular Characterization.- 4.2. Cell Surface Location.- 5. Preparation of Specific Antimelanoma Xenoantisera to 240K and 94K Antigens.- 6. Purification of 240K and 94K MAA from Spent Culture Medium.- 7. Summary.- References.- 4 Skin Tumor Markers.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Melanoma.- 2.1. Immunological Markers.- 2.2. Biochemical Markers.- 3. Basal- and Squamous-Cell Carcinoma.- 3.1. Immunological Markers.- 3.2. Biochemical Markers.- 4. Conclusion.- References.- 5 Gastrointestinal Cancer Markers.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Enzymes and Hormones in Gastrointestinal Tumor Disease.- 3. Tissue Antigens of Human Gastrointestinal Cancers Defined by Xenogeneic Antisera.- 3.1. Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA).- 3.2. Colon Cancer Antigens Defined by Monoclonal Antibodies.- 3.3. Other Colon-Derived Antigens.- 3.4. Gastric-Derived Antigens.- 3.5. Alphafetoprotein (AFP) in Esophageal and Gastric Cancer.- 3.6. Deleted Antigens.- 3.7. Conclusions.- 4. Tissue Antigens of Human Large Bowel Cancers Immunogenic in the Host of Origin.- 4.1. Antigens Defined by Demonstration of Cell-Mediated Reactivity in the Host of Origin.- 4.2. Antigens Defined by Humoral Antibodies in Patient Serum.- 4.3. Conclusions.- 5. Tissue Antigens of Rat Bowel Cancers.- 5.1. Antigens Defined by Xenogeneic Antisera.- 5.2. Nonhistone Nuclear Protein Antigens.- 5.3. Antigens Immunogenic in the Original Tumor Host.- 5.4. Expression of Embryonic Antigens on Rat Colon Carcinoma Cells.- 5.5. Conclusions.- References.- 6 Hepatocellular Carcinoma Markers.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Liver Function Tests.- 3. Alphafetoprotein.- 4. Enzymes and Isoenzymes.- 5. Systematic Manifestations of Hepatoma and Ectopic Hormone Production.- 6. Ferritin.- 7. Hepatoma-Associated Antigens.- 8. Hepatitis B Virus.- 9. Summary.- References.- 7 Pancreatic Tumor Markers.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Pancreatic Oncofetal Antigen.- 2.1. Tissue Localization of POA.- 2.2. Serum Levels of POA in Malignant Diseases.- 2.3. POA in Pancreatic Juice.- 2.4. Differential Diagnostic Value of POA in Obstructive Jaundice.- 2.5. The Differentiation Between Carcinoma of the Pancreas and Chronic Pancreatitis.- 2.6. Longitudinal Studies of POA.- 2.7. The Future for POA.- 3. Comparison with Carcinoembryonic Antigen.- References.- 8 Prostote Cancer Markers.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Prostatic Acid Phosphatase.- 3. Prostate Antigen.- 4. Alkaline Phosphatase.- 5. Ribonuclease.- 6. Polyamines.- 7. Conclusions.- References.- 9 Breast Cancer Markers.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Structure of the Breast.- 3. Diseases of the Breast.- 4. Oncodevelopmental Markers.- 4.1. Beta-Oncofetal Antigen (BOFA).- 4.2. Ferritin and Isoferritins.- 4.3. Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA).- 5. Differentiation Markers.- 5.1. Hormone Receptors.- 5.2. Casein.- 5.3. Alpha-lactalbumin.- 5.4. Mammary Gland Cyst Fluid Protein.- 5.5. Milk Fat Globule Proteins.- 6. Other Tumor-Associated Molecules.- 6.1. Thomsen-Freidenreich (T) Antigen.- 6.2. Chorionic Gonadotropin.- 6.3. Calcitonin.- 6.4. ?2-Microglobulin.- 6.5. Tissue Polypeptide Antigen.- 6.6. Urinary Polyamines.- 6.7. Assay of Multiple Tumor Markers.- 7. Candidate Tumor-Specific Markers.- 7.1. MMTV-Related Antigen.- 7.2. Mammary Tumor-Specific Glycoprotein (MTGP).- 7.3. Human Monoclonal Antibody-Defined Markers.- 8. Immune Response Markers.- 8.1. Humoral Immune Responses to MMTV.- 8.2. Cellular Immune Responses to MMTV.- 9. Genetic Markers.- 9.1. Cytogenetic Markers.- 9.2. GPT-Linked Marker.- 10. Comment.- References.- 10 Ovarian and Uterine Cancer Markers.- 1. Oncodevelopmental Antigens.- 1.1. Alphafetoprotein.- 1.2. Carcinoembryonic Antigen.- 1.3. Chorionic Gonadotropin and Subunits of Glycoprotein Hormones.- 1.4. Pregnancy-Specific Beta-1-Glycoprotein (SP1).- 1.5. Placental Protein 5 (PP5).- 2. Enzymes.- 3. Other Antigens.- 3.1. Ovarian Cancer-Associated Antigens OCAA and OCAA-1.- 3.2. Ovarian Cancer Antigens OvC-l-OvC-6.- 3.3. Miscellaneous Markers.- 4. Summary.- References.- 11 Testicular Cancer Markers.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Clinical Aspects of Testicular Cancer.- 3. Incidence and Specificity of AFP and HCG.- 4. Markers as Aids in Diagnosis and Staging.- 4.1. Diagnosis.- 4.2. Staging.- 5. Markers in Monitoring and Followup.- 6. Markers in Seminoma.- 7. Other Uses of AFP and HCG in Testicular Cancer.- 8. Other Markers for Testicular Cancer.- 9. Location of Tumors with Oncodevelopmental Markers.- 10. Tumor Markers in Pathology.- 11. The Future.- References.- 12 Placental Proteins as Tumor Markers.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Placental Alkaline Phosphatase.- 2.1. Isoenzymes and Multiple Forms of Placental Alkaline Phosphatase.- 2.2. Assays.- 2.3. Tumor-Related Alkaline Phosphatases.- 3. Histaminase (Diamine Oxidase).- 4. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin.- 4.1. Assays.- 4.2. HCG as a Tumor Marker.- 5. Pregnancy Specific Glycoprotein (SP1).- 5.1. Assays.- 5.2. Normal Tissue Origin of SP1.- 5.3. Tumors Associated with Elevated Levels of SP1.- 5.4. SP1 In Vitro.- 6. Placental Proteins (PP1).- 7. Final Remarks.- References.- 13 Bladder and Renal Tumor Markers.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Bladder Cancer.- 2.1. Morphological Markers of Bladder Carcinoma Cells.- 2.2. Potential Tumor Markers in Bladder Cancer Tissue, Urine, and Serum.- 2.3. Disease-Associated Immune Response in Bladder Cancer.- 3. Renal Cancer.- 3.1. Potential Tumor Markers in Renal Cancer.- 3.2. Immune Responses in Patients with Renal Cancer.- References.- 14 Endocrine Markers of Cancer: The Biological and Clinical Implications of Polypeptide Hormones.- Geoffrey Mendelsohn, Stephen B. Baylin.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Patterns of Inappropriate (Ectopic) Hormone Production by Tumors.- 2.1. Ectopic Small Polypeptide Hormone Production--The APUD (Amine Precurser Uptake and Decarboxylation--Neural Crest Theory).- 2.2. Ectopic "Oncoplacental" Hormone Production.- 3. Proposed Mechanisms of Inappropriate Hormone Production by Non-Endocrine Tumors.- 3.1. "Sponge" Theory.- 3.2. Genetic Mechanisms.- 4. Markers in Endocrine Tumors.- 4.1. Calcitonin in Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma and Other Human Cancer Markers.- 4.2. Islet Cell Tumors of the Pancreas.- 4.3. Carcinoid Tumors.- 5. Markers in Non-Endocrine Tumors.- 5.1. Carcinoma of the Lung.- 5.2. Neural Tumors.- 5.3. Prostatic Carcinoma.- 6. Summary.- References.- 15 Lung Cancer Markers.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Oncofetal Proteins.- 2.1. Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA).- 2.2. Alphafetoprotein (AFP).- 2.3. Pancreatic Oncofetal Antigen (POA).- 3. Hormones.- 3.1. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH).- 3.2. Lipotropin (LPH).- 3.3. Calcitonin (CT).- 3.4. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG).- 3.5. Parathyroid Hormone (PTH).- 3.6. Arginine Vasopressin (AVP).- 3.7. Prolactin.- 3.8. Placental Lactogen (PL).- 3.9. Growth Hormone (GH).- 4. Serum Proteins.- 4.1. Immunoglobulins (Ig).- 4.2. Ferritin.- 4.3. Ceruloplasmin.- 4.4. AlpharAntitrypsin (ct,-AT).- 4.5. ?2-Microglobulin.- 4.6. Tissue Polypeptide Antigen (TPA).- 4.7. Circulating Immune Complexes (CIC).- 4.8. Other Serum Proteins.- 5. Enzymes.- 5.1. Placental Alkaline Phosphatase.- 5.2. 5''-Nucleotide Phosphodiesterase Isozyme-V (5''-NPD-V).- 5.3. Amylase.- 5.4. Creatine Kinase BB.- 6. Other Substances.- Tennessee Antigen (TA).- References.- 16 Central Nervous System Tumor Markers.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Markers of Primary Intracranial Tumors.- 2.1. Markers Detected by Immunochemical Methods.- 2.2. Enzymatic Markers.- 2.3. Other Markers.- 2.4. Hormonal Markers.- 3. Markers of Metastatic Intracranial Tumors.- 3.1. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin.- 3.2. Carcinoembryonic Antigen.- 4. Conclusion.- 5. Future Prospects.- References.
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